History of the Kingdom of Cirebon

History of the Kingdom of Cirebon

Kasephan Palace consists of two complexes, Dalem Agung Pakumwati, founded by Prince Kakurabuana in 1430, and Pakungwati Palace, founded by Prince Mas Zainul Arifin in 1529. Kasephan Palace is located in Kasephan Village. Lemahwungkuk, Cirebon. Besides being magnificent, the palace has a fairly complete museum of antiquities.

One of his famous collections is the Singa Barong Train. History of Kasephan Palace Pakungwati Palace is the predecessor of Kasephan Palace. The name Pakungwati comes from the name of Queen Dewi Pakungwati, the daughter of Prince Kakurabuana, who is married to Sunan Gunung Jati. In 1529, Sunan Gunung Jati’s great-grandson, Prince Mas Zainul Arifin or Panembahan Pakhunwati I, built a new palace to the southwest of the old one. The new palace is named Keraton Pakwati, perpetuating the name of Ratu Dewi Pakwati.

Cirebon Kasephan Palace

Kasephan Palace is associated with the fall of the Cirebon Kingdom that began in 1666 during the reign of Panembahan Ratu II or Prince Rasmi. At that time, Sultan Amankrat I, ruler of Mataram who was also Panembahan Ratu II’s father-in-law, summoned his son-in-law to Surakarta and accused him of conspiring with Banten to overthrow his rule in Mataram. did. After Panembahan Ratu II was exiled and died in Surakarta in 1667, Mataram took over the vacant throne of the Kingdom of Cirebon.

This one-sided takeover aroused the wrath of Sultan Agen Tirtayasa, who was in power in Banten. Sultan Agen Tirtayasa then intervened to free the two sons of Panembahan Ratu II, who had been exiled by Mataram, namely Prince Kartawijaya and Prince Martawijaya. In 1677, internal conflict broke out in the Cirebon Sultanate due to disagreements between families regarding the succession of the kingdom.

Therefore, Sultan Agen Tirtayasa decided to divide the Cirebon Sultanate into three. The Kanoman Sultanate was led by Prince Kartawijaya with the title of Sultan Anom I, the Kasephan Sultanate was given to Prince Maltawijaya with the title of Sultan Sephu I, and Prince Wangsakerta became Panembahan of Cirebon. . Since then, Sultan Sephu I occupied Pakungwati Palace and later changed its name to Kasephan Palace.

Legacy of the Kingdom of Cirebon

The Kingdom of Cirebon was an Islamic kingdom on the island of Java that was established between the 15th and 17th centuries. At that time, the kingdom was an important hub for trade and sea routes. This is because the Kingdom of Cirebon is located on the northern coast of Java Island, between the borders of Central Java and West Java.

The founder of the Kingdom of Cirebon was Raden Wadiriktosan or Prince Chakrabuana, son of King Siriwangi of the Kingdom of Padjajaran. The kingdom experienced rapid growth and development when ruled by Syarif Hidayatullah or Sunan Gunung Jati (1479-1568 AD). Under his rule, the Cirebon Sultanate experienced rapid growth in the areas of religion, politics and economy. After more than two centuries of existence, the Cirebon kingdom collapsed in the 17th century.

Early History of the Kingdom of Cirebon Historical sources of the Kingdom of Cirebon are available from Babud Tana Sunda and Kalita Purwaka Calvin Nagari. Based on these two sources, we know that Cirebon was originally a small settlement built by Ki Geden Thapa. Aided by a bustling port, the area has developed into a metropolis on the north coast of Java.

After Ki Geden Thapa died, his grandson Wadireeksan founded Pakungwati Palace and established a government in Cirebon. Therefore, the person considered to be the founder of the Cirebon Sultanate is Prince Wadirei San or Kakurabuana. After making a pilgrimage, he became known as Haji Abdullah Iman and emerged as the first king of Cirebon to actively spread Islam to his people.

Development of Religion in the Kingdom of Cirebon

The Development of Islam and the Golden Age of the Kingdom of Cirebon One of the famous kings of the Kingdom of Cirebon was Syarif Hidayatullah or Sunan Gunung Jati, who ruled from 1479 to 1568. Spread of Islam in Cirebon. During his reign, he conquered many parts of Java for political purposes and spread the teachings of Islam.

Controlled areas include Banten, Sunda Kelapa and Rajagaroo. In the economic field, we focus on trade with various countries such as Kampa, Malacca, India, China and Arabia. Sunan Gunung Jati is considered the founder of the dynasties of the Sultanate of Cirebon and the Sultanate of Banten, and the spreader of Islam in West Java.

Fall of the Kingdom of Cirebon The fall of the Kingdom of Cirebon began in 1666 during the reign of King Panembahan Ratu II or Prince Rasmi. The cause of the collapse was motivated by the slander of Sultan Amankrat I, ruler of Mataram who was also Panembahan Ratu II’s father-in-law. Sultan Amankrat I summoned Panembahan Ratu II to Surakarta and accused him of conspiring with Banten to overthrow his rule in Mataram. As a result, Panembahan Ratu was exiled and died in Surakarta in 1667.

After the death of Panembahan Ratu II, the vacant throne of the Kingdom of Cirebon was taken over by Mataram. This one-sided takeover aroused the wrath of Sultan Agen Tirtayasa, who was in power in Banten. Sultan Agen Tirtayasa then intervened to free the son of Panembahan Ratu II, who had also been exiled by Mataram.

The Sultanate of Cirebon was then split into three, each ruled and overthrew the next Sultan. The dissolution of the Sultanate also marked the fall of the Cirebon kingdom, as the situation was increasingly clouded by the VOC’s warring politics.Relics of the Cirebon royal family, Kasephan Palace, Kanoman Palace, Kachirebon Palace, Cirebon Grand Mosque, Sunang Gunung Jati Tomb.

Kings of Cirebon Kingdom

The Cirebon Sultanate was the first Islamic kingdom in West Java and was established between the 15th and 16th centuries. The kingdom was founded by Raden Wadirektsan aka Prince Kakurabuana, son of King Pajajaran. Located on the northern coast of Java Island, the border between Central Java and West Java, the position of the Kingdom of Cirebon makes it an important hub for trade and shipping routes. In addition, Cirebon was a pioneer in the spread of Islam in West Java.

Prince Kalubana (… – 1479 AD)

Prince Kakurabuana is descended from Padjajaran and his surname is Raden Wadirektosan. As a teenager, he was known as Kian Santan. The eldest son, Prince Chakrabuana, did not qualify as crown prince of the Kingdom of Padjadjaran because he accepted Islam. When his grandfather, Ki Geden Thapa, ruler of the north coast of Java, died, Prince Chakrabuana instead founded the Pakungwati Palace and set up a government in Cirebon. Prince Chakrabuana is therefore considered the founder of the Cirebon Sultanate. Prince Chakrabuana, known as Haji Abdullah Iman, who actively spread Islam to the people of Cirebon after the pilgrimage.

Sunan Gunung Jati (1479-1568 AD) 1479

The position of Prince Kakurabuana was replaced by his brother’s son, Sharif Hidayatullah. After his death, Sharif Hidayatullah was known as Sunan Gunung Jati under the title Tumengun Sharif Hidayatullah. During his leadership, the Sultanate of Cirebon experienced rapid growth and development in the areas of religion, politics and trade. In the political sphere, Cirebon was able to seize the port of Sunda Kelapa with Demak in 1527, cutting off Portuguese influence. In the economic field, we focus on trade with various countries such as Kampa, Malacca, India, China and Arabia. Sunan Gunung Jati is considered the founder of the dynasties of the Sultanate of Cirebon and the Sultanate of Banten, and the spreader of Islam in West Java.

Fatahillah (1568-1570 AD)

After the death of Sunan Gunung Jati, a power vacuum was created. Even the Sultanate of Cirebon began to be targeted by the VOC. This vacancy was filled by a palace official, or Fatahillah, who performed his duties when Sunan Gunung Jati preached. However, Fatahillah died in 1570 and served only two years.

Queen Panembahan (1570-1649)

After Fatahillah’s death, the throne passed to Prince Emasu, grandson of Sunan Gunung Jati. The Golden Prince then took the title of Panembahan Ratu I and ruled Cirebon for about 79 years.

Queen Panembahan II (1649–1677)

Prince Rasmi or Prince Karim succeeded his grandfather Panembahan Ratu I who died in 1649. Prince Rasmi later adopted the name Panembahan Adining Kusuma, also known as Panembahan Giri Raya or Panembahan Ratu II. During his reign, the Kingdom of Cirebon was sandwiched between two powers, the Banten Sultanate and the Mataram Sultanate. When Panembahan Ratu II died in Karta Surra in 1677, there was a power vacuum. The Sultanate of Cirebon was then split into three, each ruled and overthrew the next Sultan.

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