History of Banten Kingdom

History of Banten Kingdom

The Kingdom of Banten is one of the Islamic kingdoms on the island of Java. This kingdom ruled over the Banten region to the west of Java. Previously, the Banten region was part of the Hindu-style Kingdom of Sunda. In his book The First Islamic Kingdom of Java (1985), HJ de Graaf states that the Banten Kingdom was established in the 16th century. In 1524 or 1525 Nurllah of Pasay, later Sunan Gunung Jati, sailed from Demak to West Java.

At that time, the center of development of Islam in Java was still in Demak. Sunan Gunung Jati and his son Hasanuddin spread Islamic influence to the west of Java. At that time, the Kingdom of Sunda was allied with Portugal. However, with the support of the Demak army, Sunan Gunung Jati and Hasanuddin deposed the regent of Sunda and captured Banten. Various Banten Cultural Heritage Sites (2007) consider Sunan Gunung Jati to be the founder of the Banten Kingdom.

But he did not make himself king. Sunan Gunung Jati chose to become the Sultan of Cirebon. Banten was succeeded by his son Sultan Hasanuddin. He was appointed Sultan of Banten in 1552. Under his rule, the Banten Kingdom experienced rapid development. Banten has left Demak. Banten is also the trading center of West Java.

The kings who ruled after Sultan Hasanuddin are:

  • Maulana Yusuf (1570-1585)
  • Maulana Muhammad (1585-1596)
  • Sultan Abdul Muafakir (1596-1651)
  • Sultan Agen Tirtayasa (1651–1683)

Under Maulana Yusuf, the Hindu-style Kingdom of Sunda was also defeated in 1579. The Kingdom of Banten reached its zenith of glory during the reign of Sultan Agen Tirtayasa. Under his leadership, Banten fought the VOC’s attempts to monopolize the trade. Unfortunately, Sultan Agen Tirtayasa was betrayed by his son, Sultan Haji, so he was unable to defeat the VOC. Sultan Haji assisted VOC. Thus ended the reign of the Kingdom of Banten in 1683.

The Banteng Kingdom or Banten Kingdom is an Islamic kingdom in Java founded by Sharif Hidayatullah or Sunan Gunung Jati. The history of the establishment of this kingdom began when Sunan Gunung Jati succeeded in ruling Banten in 1525-1526.

Kings of Banten Kingdom

  • Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin or Prince Sabakingkin (1552-1570 AD)
  • Sultan Maulana Yusuf or Prince Pasarayan (1570-1580 AD)
  • Sultan Maulana Muhammad or Prince Mediumrana (1580-1596 AD)
  • Sultan Abdul Mafakir Mahmoud Abdul Qadir or Prince Ratu (1596-1647 AD)
  • Sultan Abu al-Ma’ali Ahmad or Prince Anom (1647-1651 AD)
  • Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa or Abu al-Fath Abdul Fattah (1651-1683 AD)
  • Sultan Abu Nashar Abdul Qahar or Sultan Haji (1683-1687 AD)
  • Sultan Abu al-Fadi Muhammad Yahya (1687-1690 AD)
  • Sultan Abu Al Mahasin Muhammad Zainurabidin (1690-1733 AD)
  • Sultan Abdullah Muhammad Shifa Zainularifin (1733-1750 AD)
  • Sultan Syarifuddin Ratu Deputy or Prince Syarifuddin (1750-1752 AD)
  • Sultan Abu al-Mali Muhammad Wasi or Prince Arya Adissantika (1752-1753 AD)
  • Sultan Abu al-Nasr Muhammad Arif Zainursikin (1753-1773 AD)
  • Sultan Aliyuddin or Abu al-Mafakhir Muhammad Aliyuddin (1773-1799 AD)
  • Sultan Muhammad Muhyiddin Zainusarihin (1799-1801 AD)
  • Sultan Muhammad Ishaq Zainurmutakin (1801-1802 AD)
  • Vice-Prince Sultan Natawijaya (1802-1803 AD)
  • Sultan Aliyuddin II or Abu al-Mafakhir Muhammad Aqiluddin (1803-1808 AD)
  • Vice-Prince Sultan Sulamengara (1808-1809 AD)
  • Sultan Maulana Muhammad Shafieddin (1809-1816 AD)

Famous Kings of Banten Kingdom

Since then, Banten has grown into an Islamic empire, with the center of government at the western tip of Java island. In 1552 Banten was handed over to Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin, son of Sunan Gunung Jati. Sultan Hasanuddin was considered the founder and first king of the Kingdom of Banten.

The Kingdom of Banten reached its zenith of glory during the reign of Sultan Agen Tirtayasa. Sultan Agen Tirtayasa succeeded in consolidating Banten’s political and military power to combat the VOC. This was what prompted the Dutch to practice contested politics until Banten eventually had to surrender its sovereignty to the VOC.

Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin (1552-1570 AD)

Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin officially became the first king of the Banten Kingdom in 1552. During his 18-year rule, the Banten Sultanate succeeded in controlling Lampung, which produced many spices. Also, Banten developed as a trading port and Islam spread.

Sultan Maulana Yusuf (1570-1580 AD)

After the death of Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin, the role of king was replaced by Sultan Maulana Yusuf. Sultan Maulana Yusuf is known for his interest not only in the spread of Islam, but also in the development of trade and agriculture. In 1579 Banten successfully conquered Pakuan Padjadjaran and spread Islam to West Java. Sultan Maulana Yusuf died of illness in 1580.

Sultan Maulana Muhammad (1580-1596 AD)

Sultan Maulana Muhammad was only nine years old when he was appointed king to replace his father. Thus, for the time being, the wheel of government was run by his uncle, Prince Alia Jepara. As an adult, Sultan Maulana Muhammad formally ruled Banten. During his reign, Banten attacked Palembang, which was used as a stepping stone to control the Strait of Malacca. However, the attack failed and Maulana Muhammad was killed in action in 1596.

Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa or Abu al-Fath Abdul Fattah (1651-1683 AD)

The Kingdom of Banten reached its zenith of glory during the reign of Sultan Agen Tirtayasa. Some of the things he did to advance the Banten kingdom include, among others:

  • Expanding Banten’s trade area to Sumatra and southern Kalimantan
  • Banten has become an international trading venue connecting local and European traders
  • Development of Islamic education and culture
  • Modernize the palace building with the help of Lucas Cardeel arsitektur architecture
  • Build a naval fleet to protect your trade from attacks by other kingdoms and European armies

Origins and Descendants of Sultan Agen Tirtayasa Sultan Agen Tirtayasa is the son of Sultan Abu al-Maali Ahmad (fifth Sultan of Banten), born in 1631, and Ratu Marxma. The 4th generation Banten worked tenaciously in the battle against Sultan Agung Holland.

After the death of his father in 1650, Sultan Agen Tirtayasa was appointed Sultan Muda with the title Pangeran Dipati by his grandfather. Later, after the death of his grandfather in 1651, he officially ascended the throne and became the sixth king of Banten under the title Sultan Abdul Fattah al-Mafaqi. From his wife, Sultan Agen Tirtayasa has 18 children.

His famous sons were Sultan Abu Nashar Abdul Qahal or Sultan Haji and Prince Prabaya. Towards the end of his reign, Sultan Agen Tirtayasa clashed with Sultan Haji, forcing Haji to abdicate the throne and retreat to Tirtayasa’s settlement in the Serang Regency. The name Sultan Agen Tirtayasa became known after he founded a new palace on the site.

Sultan Agen Tirtayasa was one of the kings who insisted on occupying the VOC in Indonesia. This prompted the VOC to wage a political struggle between Sultan Agen Tirtayasa and his son Sultan Haji. The VOC’s tactics worked so well that Sultan Haji agreed to work with Holland to overthrow his father’s power. In 1683, Sultan Agen Tirtayasa was arrested and imprisoned, so he had to hand over power to his son.

Struggle of Sultan Agen Tirtayasa Sultan Agen Tirtayasa was one of the archipelagic kings who continued to oppose Indonesia’s occupation of the VOC. To continue his grandfather’s struggle, in 1652 Sultan Agen Tirtayasa sent an army to attack the VOC in Jakarta. Since then, the fighting between Banten and Holland has continued.

As Banten continued to deploy guerrillas, the Dutch attempted to retaliate by blockading the port. However, this did not dampen Sultan Agen Tirtayasa’s spirit of disrupting Holland. In 1655, the VOC sent a special envoy to Banten to urge Sultan Agen Tirtayasa to renew the 1645 peace treaty.

Sultan Agen Tirtayasa bravely refused to renew the treaty and decided to turn against the Dutch. In 1656, Sultan Agen Tirtayasa’s resistance to the VOC was carried out by sabotaging and destroying sugar cane plantations and mills.

Banten forces also burned down villages that were used as strongholds for the Dutch defense. In addition, the Kingdom of Banten was also able to control numerous VOC ships and several important posts. Around 1671, disputes broke out within the palace and Sultan Agen Tirtayasa chose to move his residence outside of Banten.

This was done to prevent a coup that could be started at any moment by his eldest son, Sultan Haji. In 1680, after the persecution of Banten merchants by the VOC, Sultan Agen Tirtayasa declared war again.

Conflict with Sultan Haji

Sultan Agen Tirtayasa’s spirit of opposition to the VOC was not endorsed by his son Sultan Haji. The controversy in this palace was used by the VOC to initiate the politics of fighting each other.

The VOC’s tactics worked so well that Sultan Haji agreed to work with Holland to overthrow his father’s power. In 1683 Sultan Agen Tirtayasa was arrested and imprisoned in Batavia so he had to hand over power to his son. Sultan Agen Tirtayasa died in prison in 1692 and was later buried in the Banten King Cemetery.

Sultan Abu Nashar Abdul Qahar or Sultan Haji (1683-1687 AD)

The arrest of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa was a sign of the VOC’s growing power in Banten. Sultan Haji was appointed as the next Sultan of Banten, but his appointment was subject to several conditions contained in the Banten Agreement.

Since then, the country of Banten has lost its sovereignty, and the suffering of the people is getting worse and worse. Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that Sultan Haji’s reign was marked by many riots, rebellions and turmoil in all spheres.

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