Demak Kingdom is the first and largest Islamic kingdom in North Java
The Demak Kingdom was the first Islamic kingdom on the island of Java. The glory of this kingdom cannot be separated from its role in spreading Islam to Java. This spread was started by nine Guardians known as Wari Songo.
The Demak Kingdom can be known from one of its relics, the Demak Mosque, one of the oldest mosques in Indonesia. The mosque, the center of Islamic symbols, is located in Kauman Village, Bintoro Village, Demak District, Demak District.
History of Demak Kingdom
In his book A Historis of Modern Indonesia since 1200 (2001), MC Ricklesfs states that the Demak Kingdom was founded in the 15th century, or around 1475-1518. The Demak Kingdom was founded by Raden Patter. Raden Patah was the son of Brawijaya, the last king of Majapahit, from a Chinese concubine. After the collapse of the Majapahit Kingdom, the Demak Kingdom was established.
Due to the turmoil that occurred in the Majapahit kingdom, some of its territories were separated. One of them was Demak, which was originally only a principality.With Warisongo’s support, the Demak kingdom became a large kingdom in a short period of time. The Demak kingdom was also respected by the other kingdoms of the archipelago.
The kingdom located on the northern coast of Java Island had a large area with Demak as a large kingdom. The location is very strategic, in the middle of the country’s shipping lanes, with a large port. Due to this, the economy of the Demak Kingdom is good and stable. The Demak Kingdom is also close to the mouth of the river. This facilitates rapidly growing trading activity. The Kingdom of Demak, also known as the Maritime Kingdom, is a producer of rice, salt and teak.
Fall of Demak Kingdom
The decline of the Demak kingdom began to manifest itself after the death of the third king, Sultan Terengana, son of Raden Patter. There will be revolts and power struggles. The power of the Demak kingdom ended after Jaka Tinkil transferred power to Pajan. This was after the murder of Arya Penanthan, king of Demak, who had ascended the throne after Sultan Terengana’s successor, Sunan Prawita, had been killed.
Relics of Demak Kingdom
The Demak kingdom has a legacy that still exists today. The Great Mosque of Demak. This historic mosque is unique, with one of its main pillars made of Tatar (a piece of wood) and rich in calligraphic carvings. Kompas.com reported on 22 August 2011 that the Demak Mosque is located within the Demak Square complex. The mosque features in the form of four Saka Guru or pillars. The four Saka Guru were built by Sunan Bonan, Sunan Ampel, Sunan Gunung Jati and Sunan Kalijaga. They made it out of 16.30 meter high teak wood. Wali Songo spreads and teaches acculturation methods that incorporate Hindu and Buddhist cultures. These two religions were accepted by the people before the establishment of the Demak Kingdom.
Kings of Demak Kingdom
Demak Kingdom or Demak Kingdom was the first Islamic kingdom on the island of Java. The kingdom was established with the support of Wali Songo, who spread Islam in Java. The first king was Raden Pata, son of King Majapahit. There are many versions of the year in which the Demak kingdom was founded. However, experts conclude that the kingdom was founded in 1478, the year before the Great Mosque of Demak was founded, coinciding with the fall of the Majapahit kingdom.
The Kingdom of Demak was at the height of its glory during the reign of Sultan Tolengono. Torengono continued to expand his territory, making Demak one of the centers of the spread of Islam. Demak’s power, led by Sultan Trengono, covered West Java, Jayakarta, Central Java and parts of East Java. Below are the kings who once led the Demak Kingdom.
Raden Patah (1500-1518)
Raden Patah is the son of the King of Majapahit who was known as Prince Jingbung when he was a child. After converting to Islam, he was known as Raden Patah and formally became King of Demak in 1500 and was given the title Sultan Alam Akhbar al Fatah. Under his leadership and patronage, Demak emerged as a center for the spread of Islam. His territory includes Demak, Semarang, Tegal, Jepara, and surrounding areas. The Demak kingdom had influence beyond Java, including Palembang and parts of Kalimantan. As a trading center, the Demak kingdom had important ports such as Jepara, Tuban, Sedayu and Gresik.
Patti Unus (1518-1521)
After Raden Pater died in 1518, power passed to his son Patty Unus. Although his reign was very short, Pati Unus was known as a brave warlord who tried to stop the spread of Portuguese influence in Java. He earned the nickname Prince Sablan Roe. Under the leadership of Patti Unus, Demac’s big vision is to become a great maritime sultanate. Pati Unus died at the Battle of Malacca in 1521. Read also: Demak Kingdom, the first and largest Islamic kingdom in North Java
Sultan Torengono (1521-1546)
Pati Unus died without leaving any sons, so the power was taken over by his younger brother Raden Torengono, who became a wise king. During his reign, the Demak kingdom reached its height of glory. Sultan Trengono contributed to the spread of Islam in Central Java and East Java.
Under his rule, Demac began to take control of Sunda Kelapa and in 1527 repelled the Portuguese landing there. In addition, he worked in Tuban (1527), Madiun (1529), Surabaya and Pasuruan (1527), Malang (1545) and Bulambangan. Sultan Torengono died in 1546 attacking Pasuruan . Prince Sekhar Sedrepen, who was supposed to succeed to the throne, was killed by Sunan Prawot.
Arya Penangsang, son of Sekar Sedolepen, did not keep silent and succeeded in killing Sunan Prawoto and his followers in 1547. Duke of Pajan. Thus, the end of the reign of Demak Kingdom and the beginning of the reign of Pajan Kingdom under the leadership of Sultan Hadiwijaya.
Biography of Raden Patter, First King of Demak Kingdom
Demak was the first Islamic kingdom on the island of Java. Founded in 1478 by Raden Pata. Raden Pata was an aristocrat of the Majapahit kingdom and a duke of the Bintala Demak Principality. The reputation of the Demak Sultanate comes from nine great scholars and Javanese earliest preachers of Islam, Wali Sangha. With help from other regions, Raden Pata severed ties with the then weakened Majapahit. This decision further strengthened Demak’s independence and Raden Pata’s acquisition of the title of Sultan Shah Alam Akbar.
Origin of mother-of-pearl pattern
Based on Purwadi’s History of Kings of Java – History of Kings of Java (2010), Raden Pata was a ruler of an Islamic kingdom of Chinese ancestry. Raden Patah’s mother was Chinese and a Ming dynasty princess named Siu Ban Ci. Raden Pata was born in Palembang in 1455.
Raden Patah is the son of Brawijaya V, the last king of Majapahit. In the early 14th century, Ming Dynasty emperor Yang Lu sent his daughter to King Brawijaya V of Majapahit as a sign of friendship between the two countries. It received special attention in my heart.
However, the princess’ presence bothered Empress Ratu Dwarawati, who came from Kampa. This jealousy forced Brawijaya V to expel the princess from the palace. In a state of pregnancy, the princess was sent to Alia Damar, Duke of Palembang. After giving birth to a broken mother-of-pearl, Siu Bun Ci married Arya Damar and had a child named Raden Kusen.
Indirectly, he becomes the younger brother of Raden Putter. Radenpata is known as Prince Jinbun. At a young age, Raden Pata received an education with a noble and political background. Having lived in the palace of the Duke of Palembang for 20 years, Raden Pata decided to return to Majapahit with his younger brother Raden Kusen.
Arriving in Tuban, Raden Pata lived and studied at Ampel Denta with Muslim merchants. There he also received support from the Chinese emperor’s envoy, Admiral Zheng He. In addition, Raden Patah also studied Islam with Sunan Giri, Sunan Bonang and Sunan Drajat. After being considered graduated, Raden Patah was trusted to become a minister and settle in the NCO.
Lead the Kingdom of Demak
At the NCO, Raden Patah transformed the NCO forest into the Glagahwangi Islamic boarding school. With the progress of Pesantren and Islam around NCOs, Raden Patter renamed Gragafangi Demak and named the capital NCOs. In MC Ricklesfs’ History of Modern Indonesia After 1200 (2001), the Demak Kingdom developed as a center of trade and the spread of Islam. Java of Wali in the spread of Islam is very large. During the reign of Raden Patah, the Demak Mosque was built and its construction process was assisted by Wali. As the first king of the Kingdom of Demak, he conquered the Kingdom of Majapahit and transferred all the ritual objects and heirlooms of the Kingdom of Majapahit to the Kingdom of Demak.
Role of Raden Patah
In his book The Fall of the Hindu Javanese Kingdom and the Rise of Islamic Nations in the Archipelago, Slamet Mujana (2007), Raden Pata successfully expanded and defended the Majapahit Kingdom. This can be found here:
- Raden Patah’s success conquered Girindra Wardhana, who usurped the Majapahit’s throne and assumed power over the Majapahit.
- Raden Patah put up resistance against the Portuguese, who wanted to occupy Malaha and block Demak. He sent his son Patu Unus to lead the resistance, which was ultimately unsuccessful.
- In the field of Islamic law and its development, Raden Patah seeks to apply Islamic law to various aspects of life.
Raden Patah died in Demak, Central Java in 1518. His status then became known as his son Patti Unus, or Prince Sabran Lo. Raden Pata is known to have three wives, Sorekha of Maloka, the daughter of Sunan Ampel, Randhu Singha and Princess Dipati Jipang. From his three marriages, Raden Patah has children named Pati Unus, Raden Trenggono, Raden Kanduruwan, Raden Kikin, and Ratu Nyawa.