Ancient Balinese Kingdom History

Ancient Balinese Kingdom History

The existence of Bali today is not inseparable from the long past history of the existence of the ancient Balinese kingdom of Bali. During the reign of the ancient kingdom of Bali, kings took turns holding the reins of government. Ancient Balinese history records that the Warmadewa dynasty ruled the first ancient Balinese kingdom, and the Blanjong inscription found at Banjar Blanjong in Sanur Kau village in Denpasar, south of Bali, dates back to AD 913 or Ithaca 835. It is the oldest inscription in history. About the ancient king of Bali, the writing of Branjong Inscription is written in Old Balinese Pranagari script and Sanskrit Kawi script.

The inscription is in the form of a stone pillar with a height of 177 cm and a diameter of 62 cm.This ancient Balinese heritage also includes many ancient statues and places of worship. The inscription mentions the word Walidwipa as the name of Bali issued by the king of Bali, Sri Kesari Warmadewa, as a sign of victory over his enemies.

Other evidence of ancient Balinese history was also found in some small 2.5 cm clay stamps. The inscription does not mention the existence of a Balinese kingdom in that century, but orders the construction of guesthouses and hermitages on Kintamani Hill.

History of Kings in Ancient Bali

The history of the ancient Balinese kingdom includes the existence of the first ruling Warmadewa dynasty and many inscriptions and information found in many places relating to the kings and rulers of Bali.

Sri Kesari Warmadewa

As recorded in ancient Balinese history, King Sri Kesari Warmadewa was the first king to rule in Bali. This king was also the founder of the Warmadewa dynasty, and the name Warmadewa ensures that the king is descended from Sirendra of Sriwijaya Palembang.

An ancient book of the Purana kings states that a Balinese king named Shri Willa Dalem Kesari built the Sinhadwara Palace in the Besakih temple area. The king was very zealous in worshiping the god who lived on Mount Agung. It is now called Melayan Seronding. Sri Kesari Warmadewa’s reign was short-lived, lasting only about two years, and was later replaced by Ugrasena.

Shri Ugrasena

This ancient Balinese king ruled from 915 to 942 AD, with the center of government at Singamandawa around Batur. He is a wise king and spiritually Bali is growing fast. As such, it began to attract the attention of merchants and other kingdoms. Although he did not give the title of Warmadewa, he was confirmed to be the king of the Warmadewa dynasty.

Shri Ugrasena is known to be wise and authoritative to keep Bali safe and peaceful. During the reign of ancient Bali, Shiva, Buddha, Hindu, Rsi and Empu priests came from Java and India, all living in harmony. There are also numerous inscriptions mentioning the existence of King Shri Ugrasena, such as the Sembiran AI Inscription, Pengotan AI Inscription, Gobleg Pura Batur A Inscription, and other inscriptions written in ancient Balinese.

Shri Thavanendra Warmadewa

The government of the ancient Balinese kingdom was taken over by King Sri Thavanendra Warmadewa. The king was still descended from the Warmadewa dynasty. He himself was the son of King Shri Ugrasena. After Sri Ugrasena died, he was replaced and reigned by his son Sri Thavanendra Warmadewa. In the Kingdom of Singamandawa, he married Mpu’s child wife named Sri Subadri Dharmadewi, son of Mpuspoon who came from East Java. shows Empress Srisbadri Dharma Dewi, who reigned in the ancient Kingdom of Bali, which ruled from 943 to 961 AD .

Jaya Sinha Warmadewa

The next successor is Jaya Singha Warmadewa. He is the son of husband and wife kings Sri Thavanendra Warmadewa and Sri Subadri Dharmadewi. This ancient Balinese king is also known for building a bathhouse with natural hot springs in Manukaya Village, Tampaksiring. This bath is called Tirta. Empul is now a popular tourist destination in the Thampakshiring region of Gianyar. This ancient Balinese king ruled from 968 to 975 AD.

Sri Janusandu Warmadewa

After Jaya Singha Warmadewa passed away, the next ancient Balinese kingdom was succeeded by his son, namely Sri Janusandu Warmadewa, consort of the King of East Java who was given the title of Sri Wijaya Mahadewi.

During the reign of Sri Wijaya Mahadewi many development improvements including the construction of temples took place and the ancient Balinese kingdom at that time also received a lot of help from the East Javanese kingdom and the inhabitants of Bali felt more prosperous. Under the rule of Sri Wijaya Mahadewi, the ancient kingdom of Bali lasted from 975 AD to 988 AD.

Udayana Warmadewa and Gnapriya Dharmapatni

The following ancient Balinese kingdoms were ruled by husband and wife kings, King Udayana Warmadewa and his consort Gunapriya Dharmapatni (988-1011 AD). His consort, the son of the king and daughter of Sri Makuta Wangsa Wardhana, came from East Java named Mahendradata. After being crowned as a prince’s husband and wife with the title Dharmodayana Warmadewa and giving his consort the title Gnapriya Dharmapatni, this ancient Balinese king ruled from 988 AD to 1011 AD.

But very interestingly, in many inscriptions found in Bali, the name of the Empress is mentioned first. This great influence from Java has also influenced the culture. King Udayana had three sons, Airlangga, Malakata and Anak Wongsu. Airlangga himself never ruled a kingdom in Bali as he moved to East Java to await Dharmawangsa.

Malakata

After King Udayana passed away, a large ceremony was held to honor the king for his great service, which was respected by all levels of Balinese society and was attended by religious leaders, royal officials and community leaders. An envoy from Airlangga ..and the government of the ancient Balinese kingdom was taken over by his son Malakata, given the title Dharmawangsavardhana Malakata Pankaja Suttana Utungadewa, the ancient Balinese king who ruled from 1011 to 1022. was given.

Youngest son

A historical journey through the ancient kingdom of Bali follows Anak Unsu, brother of the next king, Malakata and Airlangga. During the reign of the ancient Balinese kingdom, King Anak Unsu is recorded to have left the most inscriptions in Bali, including the inscriptions kept in Trunyan Banri Village, the Bebetin Buleleng Inscription, and the Sembilan Buleleng Inscription. inscription, Sawan Beranti, Serai’s SP inscription, Pengotan. , Manikliyu Bangli and Klungkung inscriptions are mostly written in old Balinese.

Relics from the ancient Balinese history of the past are also in the form of statues, one of which is the Gunung Kawi Temple Complex, which is now a tourist attraction in Bali. The king reigned for 28 years (1049-1077) and succeeded in ensuring social welfare and the coexistence of Hinduism and Buddhism. The Wungsu children’s king is regarded by the people as a god of goodness. Wungsu’s own son had no sons and his spouse was known as Batari Barren.

Sri Sradipa

After the heyday of the ancient Balinese kingdom under King Anak Wungsu, it is recorded in many Balinese inscriptions, already written in Old Javanese or Kawi. In the presence of a queen who ruled the The following year, an inscription dated to 1115 named Shuri was kept at Gobleg Blereng. A descendant of the Warmedewa dynasty, Suradipa is the son of Sri Sakalendu.

Sri Jaya Pangas

After Sri Sradipa, the ancient Balinese kingdoms were ruled by Kings Sri Jaya Sakti, Sri Jaya Kasnu and Sri Jaya Pangas respectively. Judging by the names of the kings who ruled in ancient Bali, it is a mixture of dynasties or dynasties: the Warmadewa dynasty and the Maharaja Jaya Sakti dynasty. Many Balinese inscriptions tell us that Sri Jaya Sakti ruled ancient Bali from 1133 to 1150.

The next ancient Balinese kingdom was held by Sri Jaya Kasnu and his reign was introduced on the Galungan and Kuningan festivals. Next, King Sri Jaya Pangas invited Sapta Pandita to perform the Eka Dasa Rudra ceremony at the Besakih temple. In an inscription, Sri Jaya Pangas mentions that there is a palace at Pejeng. The ancient kingdom of Bali was under the reign of King Sri Jaya Pangas from 1177 to 1199 AD.

After the Jaya Sakti dynasty or dynasty ruled over the ancient Balinese kingdom, the Singhasari kingdom came, which conquered Bali in 1284 AD, and again the Majapahit kingdom conquered Bali in 1343 AD. Aji Kresna Kepakisan, Dalem Samprangan, Dalem Ketut, Dalem Waturenggong, Dalem Bekung, Dalem Sagening, Dalem Di Made, Dewa Pacekan, Dewa Cawu, Anglurah Agung Maruti.

Thus, a little review of the history of the ancient kingdom of Bali from ancient times. Historical relics such as buildings, ancient statues, inscriptions and ancient Balinese lontars can be found in various locations in Bali. Many of Bali’s ancient historical monuments are now popular tourist destinations and tour destinations in Bali.

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